Posted in Manufacturing Process

Open Hearth Furnace Usage & Schematic Diagram

In open hearth furnace, pig iron, steel scrap etc. are melted to obtain steel. This furnace is widely used in American foundries for steel production. The hearth is surrounded by roof and walls of refractory bricks as shown in image below. The charge is fed through a charging door and is heated to 1650°C mainly by radiation of heat from the burning of gaseous fuels above it. This heat is obtained by the burning of sufficiently pre-heated air and gas. Such pre-heated air of gas is obtained by passing them though arc shaped hot regenerators at a lower level. This contains fire bricks which are arranged…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

How Pig Iron is Converted into Iron and Steel in Blast Furnace

Blast Furnace After mining, various kinds of iron ores are brought to the blast furnace which is the starting process for refining iron ores or mined ores and for the production of pig iron. Blast furnace was invented in 14th century. A typical blast furnace along with its various parts is shown in Fig. 1. It is large steel shell about 9 mt. in diameter which is lined with heat resistant bricks. It is set on the top of brick foundation. There are four major parts of blast furnace from bottom to top hearth, bosh, stack and top. The hearth…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Classification of Pig Iron

Pig iron was originated in the early days by reduction or iron ores in blast furnace and when the total output of the blast furnace was sand cast into pigs which is a mass of iron roughly resembling a reclining pig. It is roughly of 20″ × 9″ × 4″ in size. It is produced in a blast furnace and is the first product in the process of converting iron ore into useful ferrous metal. The iron ore on initial refining and heating in blast furnace becomes pig iron when the impurities are burnt out in a blast furnace. Pig iron acts as the raw…

Posted in Materials Science and Engineering

Production Process of Various Types of Irons

Introduction Ferrous metals are iron based metals which include all varieties of iron and steels. Ferrous basically refers to iron. Iron is the name given to pure ferrite (Fe), as well as to mixtures of this ferrite with about 1.7% Carbon also known as Pig Iron. Pig iron is the basic raw material which is produced from iron ore in the blast furnace. Cast iron, wrought iron and steels are made from Pig iron. Cast iron is produced in cupola furnace. Cast iron can be cast but it cannot be forged. Wrought iron can be forged but it cannot be…