The engine lubricating system supplying lubricating oil to all engine moving parts. Even smooth metal surfaces are having irregularities at microscopic level. When these surfaces come in contact friction, wear and tear takes place. The lubricating oil helps in minimizing power losses in engine. The engine oil should have proper viscosity so that it flows easily to all moving parts. But the oil must not be too thin. Low viscosity reduces ability of the oil to stay in place between moving parts. Then rapid wear of components will be the result. High viscosity oil is thicker. There for it flows more slowly, especially in cold weather.
Purpose and Main Components
(a) Purpose. The purpose of the lubrication system is to ensure that a film of oil is always present between quickly moving parts, thus preventing metal-to-metal contact with each other. The film of oil is all that stands between the various moving parts wear.
(b) Main Components:
(i) Oil sump
(ii) Oil strainer
(iii) Oil pump
(v) Oil Filter
(vi) Oil cooler/ Heat exchanger
(vii) Oil Pressure Gauge
Properties of Lubricant. A lubricant must have following properties;
(a) It should wet the surfaces.
(b) Should posses suitable viscosity.
(c) Not evaporate excessively in service.
(d) Not affect any material with which it comes into contact.
(e) Have no tendency to deposit gum, varnish, sludge or other materials, which may interfere with its correct performance.
(f) It should be chemically stable under service conditions, so that it will not become deficient in any of the above respects.
(g) It should carry away heat from engine parts, and to protect surfaces against corrosion.