Posted in India

List of Universities in Arunachal Pradesh

Below are the list of universities available in Arunachal Pradesh. This beautiful state has a total of 38 universities in total apart from 22 degree colleges and 4 medical colleges run in the state. There are also 2 law universities. 1 autonomous university, 1 architecture college that are included in the list of 38 universities. Analyzing the total list Arunachal Pradesh has one central university, one deemed university and five state universities. This list is updated as on 19 Mar 2019. The list update is subject to any addition or deletion by the state education board. Below are the complete…

Posted in India

List of Universities in Andhra Pradesh

As we have explained in our previous article University Directory of India about the listings and here is the first list from the state of Andhra Pradesh as it is the first stated in alphabetical order. The rest of the list of states will be followed in this order. There are a total of 38 universities in this state located in Southern India. To classify there are 9 central universities, 21 state universities, 5 deemed universities and 3 private universities. The table below will list out the names of the universities with the location where it is situated with the…

Posted in India

State Wise University Directory of India

Having a University Directory of any country not only provides a guide to the students and their parents a proper information about the institute but also a platform where anyone can get information easily and save a lot of time that is wasted on inquiry about it. So, AxiBook has started the initiative to prepare the list of universities for all countries along with the complete bio data of the institution that will help the needy at the time of requirement. To begin with, we have started building up the list with Indian Universities. The list will be in tabular…

Posted in Education

What is Annealing?

It is a softening process in which iron base alloys are heated above the transformation range held there for proper time and then cool slowly (at the of rate of 30 to 150°C per hour) below the transformation range in the furnace itself. Heating is carried out 20°C above upper critical temperature point of steel in case of hypo eutectoid steel and the same degree above the lower critical temperature point in case of type eutectoid steel. Fig 1 shows the heating temperature ranges for annealing or softening process of both hypo and hyper carbon steel. Fig. 2 shows the…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

What is Normalizing?

Normalizing is a defined as softening process in which iron base alloys are heated 40 to 50°C above the upper-critical limit for both hypo and hyper eutectoid steels and held there for a specified period and followed by cooling in still air up to room temperature. Fig 1 shows the heating temperature ranges for normalizing process of both hypo and hyper carbon steel. Fig. 2 shows the structure obtained after normalizing of medium carbon steel. Objectives of Normalizing 1. To soften metals 2. Refine grain structure 3. Improve machinability after forging and rolling 4. improve grain size 5. Improve structure…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Objectives of Heat Treatment

The major objectives of heat treatment are given as under 1. It relieves internal stresses induced during hot or cold working. 2. It changes or refines grain size. 3. It increases resistance to heat and corrosion. 4. It improves mechanical properties such as ductility, strength, hardness, toughness, etc. 5. It helps to improve machinability. 6. It increases wear resistance 7. It removes gases. 8. It improves electrical and magnetic properties. 9. It changes the chemical composition. 10. It helps to improve shock resistance. 11. It improves weldability. The above objectives of heat treatment may be served by one or more…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

Fig. 1 shows, the Fe-C equilibrium diagram in which various structure (obtained during heating and cooling), phases and microscopic constituents of various kinds of steel and cast iron are depicted. The main structures, significance of various lines and critical points are discussed as under. Structures in Fe-C-diagram The main microscopic constituents of iron and steel are as follows: 1. Austenite 2. Ferrite 3. Cementite 4. Pearlite Austenite Austenite is a solid solution of free carbon (ferrite) and iron in gamma iron. On heating the steel, after upper critical temperature, the formation of structure completes into austenite which is hard, ductile…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Transformation of Steel During Heating and Cooling Process

When a steel specimen is heated, its temperature rises unless there is change of state or a change in structure. Fig. 1 shows heating and cooling curve of steel bearing different structures. Similarly, if heat is extracted, the temperature falls unless there is change in state or a change in structure. This change of structure does not occur at a constant temperature. It takes a sufficient time a range of temperature is required for the transformation. This range is known as transformation range. For example, the portion between the lower critical temperature line and the upper critical temperature line with hypo and hyper eutectoid steels,…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Allotropy Of Iron

In actual practice it is very difficult to trace the cooling of iron from 1600°C to ambient temperature because particular cooling rate is not known. Particular curve can be traced from temperature, time and transformation (TTT) curve. However allotropic changes observed during cooling of pure iron are depicted in Fig. 1. When iron is cooled from molten condition up to the solid state, the major allotropic changing occurs which are: 1539-1600°C Molten-Fe (Liquid state of iron) 1400-1539°C Delta-Fe (Body centered) 910-1400°C Gamma-Fe (FCC atomic arrangement and austenite structure) 770- 910°C Beta-Fe (Body centered-nonmagnetic) Up to 770°C Alpha-Fe (BCC atomic arrangement and ferrite structure) (i)…

Posted in Manufacturing Process

Micro structure of mild steel, pearlite eutectoid steel & high carbon steel

Fig. 1 shows micro structure of mild steel (0.2-0.3% C). White constituent in this figure is very pure iron or having very low free carbon in iron in form of ferrite and dark patches contain carbon in iron is chemically combined form known as carbide (Cementite). Cementite is very hard and brittle. Now if the dark patches of the above figure are further observed, a substance built up of alternate layer of light and dark patches is reflected in Fig. 2. These layers are alternatively of ferrite and cementite. This substance is called as pearlite and is made up of 87% ferrite and 13% cementite. But…